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Ancaman Banjir dan Bencana Alam Mengintai di Tengah Pandemi Corona

- Jumat, Mei 01, 2020
Opini Bangsa - Pengamat kebencanaan mengatakan pemerintah perlu memikirkan langkah-langkah untuk mengantisipasi bencana alam di saat pandemi virus corona, karena ancaman bencana alam masih mengintai berbagai daerah di Indonesia.

Widjo Kongko, pakar tsunami dan peneliti senior Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT), mengatakan bila terjadi bencana alam berbarengan dengan wabah "ini jadi sesuatu yang betul-betul berat".

Pernyataan Widjo beralasan karena hingga 30 April, misalnya, terdata 13 gunung api dalam status aktif dan sebagian terletak di provinsi-provinsi yang merupakan zona merah penularan virus corona.

Terdata pula lebih dari 1.000 kejadian bencana masih terjadi hingga awal April.

Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) menyatakan pihaknya `pasti akan memberlakukan protokol Covid-19 dalam penanganan bencana`.

Namun kenyataan di lapangan membuktikan pemberlakuan protokol Covid-19 tak semudah itu. Masker saja `masih sulit` didapatkan warga di sekitar kaki gunung berapi yang tengah aktif.

Pakar kebencanaan berpendapat perlu ada `modifikasi protokol dan strategi yang lebih tinggi intensitasnya`.
Evaluasi kapasitas tempat pengungsian

Widjo Kongko pakar tsunami dan peneliti senior BPPT meminta BPBD mengevaluasi kapasitas tempat pengungsian bila diperlukan evakuasi. Dengan adanya keharusan menjaga jarak alias social distancing demi mencegah penyebaran virus corona, ruang yang dibutuhkan menjadi lebih besar sehingga kapasitas saat ini perlu ditambah.

"Yang tadinya kapasitasnya misal 10.000 manusia di situ, mungkin sepertiganya saja bahkan mungkin kurang. Dari sini yang harus dihitung ulang," ujarnya.

Ia menambahkan, seandainya terjadi bencana dan masyarakat harus dievakuasi, di tempat pengungsian perlu dilakukan pemisahan orang-orang yang berstatus Orang Dalam Pengawasan (ODP) dan Pasien Dalam Pengawasan (PDP).

Widjo mengatakan BPBD harus menyusun rencana kontingensi itu mulai dari sekarang.

"Jek jek kalau orang Jawa bilang. Kalau-kalau. Kita enggak tahu, kalau-kalau ini masih dalam tahap Covid atau PSBB ini tiba-tiba ada gempa kan," tuturnya.
Bencana di tengah pandemi Covid-19

Dalam data Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi bencana Geologi (PVMBG) pada 30 April 2020 ada 13 gunung berapi di Indonesia yang tengah aktif.

Tiga gunung berapi di antaranya berada di level siaga (level III) yang mensyaratkan warga siap menggunakan masker bila sewaktu-waktu ada hujan abu. Ketiga gunung itu adalah Gunung Agung-Bali, Gunung Karangetang-Sulawesi Utara, dan Gunung Sinabung-Sumatera Utara.

Sementara 10 gunung api lainnya berstatus waspada (level II) di antaranya terletak di provinsi-provinsi yang termasuk dalam lima besar kasus positif virus corona terbanyak.

Misalnya, Gunung Semeru dan Bromo di Jawa Timur, Gunung Merapi di Jawa Tengah dan DIY dan Gunung Slamet di Jawa Tengah.

Sementara Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) mencatat, hingga 10 April 2020, terdapat lebih dari 1.000 kejadian bencana. Bencana hidrometeorologi seperti banjir, puting beliung, dan tanah longsor disebut masih tetap dominan. Kejadian lain yang jumlahnya tinggi yaitu kebakaran hutan dan lahan.

"Ibarat jatuh tertimpa tangga"

BBC Indonesia bertanya pada warga di sekitar kaki Gunung Sinabung, Sumatera Utara yang berada pada level III (siaga) mengenai situasi yang mereka hadapi.

Pelin Sembiring, mengalami beberapa kali erupsi dan awan panas Gunung Sinabung sejak tahun 2016.

Pelin mengatakan, masyarakat di kaki Sinabung "ibarat jatuh tertimpa tangga" karena penanggulangan bencana erupsi belum selesai, sudah terjadi lagi bencana wabah virus corona.

Ia menjelaskan, masyarakat mengeluh karena hasil pertanian mereka tidak laku karena wabah virus corona. Masyarakat juga tidak bisa berdagang dan bekerja karena perintah diam di rumah; sementara bantuan sosial belum optimal tersalurkan ke masyarakat, kata Pelin.

Selain itu, Pelin mengatakan masyarakat kesulitan untuk membeli masker. "Di manapun untuk tempat pembelian, kita tidak dapat. Ke toko kita cari pun maskernya tidak ada. Dan juga di apotek-apotek sulit untuk dicari," tutur Pelin.

"Walaupun ada masker itu datang entah dari mana dibawa ke apotek dan toko, itu cepat habis. Jadi masyarakat di sini lebih banyak tidak pakai masker daripada pakai masker."
Sulit jaga jarak di tengah banjir

Sementara pengalaman menjalankan protokol Covid-19 di saat bencana dirasakan Kepala BPBD Rejang Lebong Budianto. Kabupaten di Provinsi Bengkulu itu baru-baru ini dilanda banjir dan tanah longsor yang merusak ratusan rumah warga dan menyebabkan kerugian kira-kira Rp1,5 miliar.

Budianto mengaku kesulitan membuat masyarakat tetap menjaga jarak di saat bencana.

"[Protokol Covid-19] diperhatikan, tapi dalam praktiknya enggak bisa full karena kondisinya memang darurat," ujarnya kepada BBC News Indonesia.

Selain itu, pihaknya juga kekurangan personel. Pasalnya, BPBD juga terlibat dalam penanggulangan pandemi Covid-19. "Jadi ada beban tambahan di saat yang sama kita harus mengakomodir yang banjir ini jadi ada sedikit kendala-kendala teknis di lapangan," tuturnya.

"Masyarakat juga berkumpulnya mendadak, mendesak, dalam arti mereka juga menyelamatkan harta-harta, barang-barang kan enggak bisa kita tunggu dulu. Mereka langsung spontan, begitu."

Ali, tokoh masyarakat di Kecamatan Curup Tengah, Kabupaten Rejang Lebong yang terdampak banjir, mengatakan ia menyampaikan kepada masyarakat agar tetap mengikuti langkah-langkah yang dianjurkan pemerintah daerah untuk mencegah penularan Covid-19.

"Mereka seperti ini, berkumpul, ada lima sampai tujuh orang menggunakan alat-alat kesehatan mereka kan seperti masker. Kalau ingin membagikan (bantuan) mereka menggunakan sarung tangan ... masih ikuti sistem yang udah disampaikan pemerintah daerah untuk mencegah penularan Covid," ujarnya.

Bagaimanapun, menurutnya, bencana banjir ini memperburuk kondisi masyarakat yang pendapatannya sudah berkurang karena wabah.

"Mereka yang tadinya sulit, tambah sulit dengan adanya banjir ini. Tadinya sudah tidak bisa bergerak, ditambah ada musibah banjir ya tambah begitu kan," tuturnya.
`Mesti ada strategi yang lebih tinggi intensitasnya`

"Mesti ada suatu strategi, atau langkah-langkah yang menjadi lebih tinggi intensitasnya - orangnya perlu ditambah, fasilitasnya perlu ditambah, dananya juga untuk menangani itu harus dianggarkan oleh pemerintah," kata Wayan Sengara dari Pusat Mitigasi Bencana Institut Teknologi Bandung menanggapi situasi yang terjadi.

Ia menekankan bahwa antisipasi bencana alam di saat wabah membutuhkan persiapan ekstra. Wayan menyarankan agar BNPB menambah tingkat risiko dalam peta risiko bencananya sedikitnya satu poin - daerah yang asalnya memiliki risiko bencana sedang, misalnya, menjadi risiko tinggi.

"Mestinya kan antisipasi dari medium ke tinggi itu sudah ada suatu level-level langkah mitigasi, langkah penanganan yang mestinya sudah dimiliki oleh perangkat-perangkat di BNPB, BPBD, dan sebagainya," ujar Wayan.

Menurutnya, BNPB bisa mulai dengan menambah tempat-tempat yang bisa dijadikan tempat pengungsian. Ia mengatakan bangunan-bangunan sekolah atau universitas bisa dijadikan tempat penampungan dalam keadaaan darurat.
`Masih pembicaraan awal`

Kepala Pusat Data dan Informasi Kebencanaan BNPB, Agus Wibowo, mengatakan dalam situasi bencana alam pihaknya akan menerapkan protokol Covid-19. "Kalau kita sedang masa Covid ada bencana ya kita pakai protokol Covid - pakai masker, cuci tangan, dan sebagainya," ujarnya kepada BBC News Indonesia.

Namun, Agus mengakui bahwa kajian mengenai penambahan kapasitas tempat pengungsian belum dilakukan.

"Itu belum ada jadi belum dikerjakan sekarang. Belum pada mikir ke situ. Tapi kita masih ngomongnya Covid aja. Nanti kalau pengungsi ya pakai prosedur Covid," kata Agus.

Sebelumnya dalam sebuah rilis pers, Direktur Pengembangan Strategi Penanggulangan Bencana BNPB Raditya Jati mengatakan akan membentuk tim teknis untuk menyusun kesiapan menghadapi bencana alam dalam situasi pandemi Covid-19.

Ketika dihubungi BBC News Indonesia, Minggu (26/04), Raditya Jati mengatakan kajian langkah antisipasi untuk ancaman multibahaya itu "masih pembicaraan awal".[viva]


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