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22 Juta Orang Derita Kelaparan Kronis di Era Jokowi Berdasarkan HasilRiset ADB

- Kamis, November 07, 2019

Opini  Bangsa -  ADB  [ Asian  Development  Bank ]  bersama  International  Food   Policy Research  Institute  (IFPRI)  dan  didukung  Kementerian  Bappenas mengeluarkan sebuah publikasi bertajuk 'Policies to Support Investment  Requirements  of  Indonesia's  Food  and Agriculture Development During 2020-2045'.

Dalam riset tersebut terungkap pada era 2016-2018 ternyata sebanyak 22 juta orang di Indonesia menderita kelaparan kronis.

Dalam executive summary-nya, riset tersebut mengawalinya dengan catatan baik. Sektor pertanian telah berkembang cukup signifikan di Indonesia dalam beberapa dekade terakhir.

"Pertumbuhan yang kuat telah mendorong transformasi struktural dan membentuk kembali ekonomi agraria, dengan peran dominan sekarang dimainkan oleh industri dan jasa," kutipan ringkasan eksekutif publikasi yang dirilis Oktober 2019 kemarin.

Namun, riset tersebut juga memberikan catatan. Sejumlah besar orang masih terlibat dalam pertanian tradisional, terperangkap dalam kegiatan yang dibayar rendah dan kurang produktif.

"Banyak dari mereka tidak mendapatkan makanan yang cukup dan anak-anak mereka cenderung stunting, membuat mereka dalam lingkaran setan kemiskinan selama beberapa generasi. Pada 2016-2018, sekitar 22,0 juta orang di Indonesia masih menderita kelaparan," jelas laporan tersebut.

Dari sisi ketahanan pangan, akses tidak merata terjadi di Indonesia. Dan kerawanan pangan tetap menjadi masalah.

Indonesia menempati urutan ke-65 di antara 113 negara dalam Indeks Keamanan Pangan Global (GFSI) yang diterbitkan oleh EIU [Economist Intelligence Unit].

Peringkat tersebut paling buncit di antara kawasan regional seperti Singapura (peringkat 1), Malaysia (peringkat 40), Thailand (peringkat 54), dan Vietnam (peringkat 62).

"Akses untuk mendapatkan makanan di Indonesia cukup rendah," tulis laporan tersebut lagi.

Apa Solusinya?

ADB mencermati, realokasi subsidi pupuk dan kebijakan peningkatanan investasi pemerintah dalam penelitian pertanian, infrastruktur pedesaan, dan irigasi dapat menghapus kelaparan di Indonesia pada 2034.

Laporan ini merekomendasikan perubahan strategis dalam investasi pemerintah, perubahan regulasi dan penyuluhan pertanian untuk meningkatkan kinerja ekonomi Indonesia, disamping untuk meningkatkan ketahanan pangan dan menghapus kelaparan.

"Menghapus kelaparan di Indonesia memerlukan peningkatan investasi di sektor pertanian dan pedesaan untuk memacu produktivitas, modernisasi sistem pangan dan meningkatkan efisiensi pasar pangan," kata Mark W. Rosegrant, Peneliti Senior di International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPR) dan Ketua Tim Peneliti pada Laporan ADB tentang Peningkatan Investasi untuk Ketahanan Pangan.

"Untuk menghapus kelaparan di Indonesia kita harus menargetkan investasi pada bidang-bidang yang mampu berkontribusi pada pembangunan ekonomi dan kesejahteraan masyarakat, merealokasi anggaran dan subsidi yang sudah terbukti kurang efektif," kata Bustanul Arifin, Guru Besar Ilmu Ekonomi Pertanian Universitas Lampung.

Realokasi subsidi pupuk untuk investasi pertanian, termasuk R&D pertanian akan meningkatkan produktivitas pertanian, pembangunan ekonomi nasional (PDB) dan mengurangi kelaparan. Selain menghapus kelaparan, beberapa skenario investasi pertanian bahkan dapat meningkatkan kinerja perekonomian. Skenario investasi komprehensif tersebut diproyeksikan akan menghasilkan tambahan manfaat ekonomi (economic benefits) sebesar Rp 1.834 triliun pada tahun 2045, atau sekitar US$ 129 miliar dengan kurs nilai tukar saat ini.

Laporan tentang Indonesia tersebut mencakup beberapa rekomendasi kebijakan:

• Pengeluaran untuk R&D pertanian, khususnya pemuliaan tanaman dan ternak, perlu ditingkatkan secara signifikan;
• Investasi infrastruktur, termasuk jalan desa, listrik, menara telepon BTS, pasar, rantai berpendingin, dan fasilitas pengolahan produk lain, perlu ditingkatkan dengan skema kemitraan dengan pihak swasta;
• Peningkatan investasi, perluasan jaringan irigasi, rehabilitasi sistem irigasi yang ada, perlu dilakukan dengan cermat dan hati-hati dengan pertimbangan efektivitas biaya.
• Penyuluhan, pelatihan dan pendidikan pertanian perlu ditingkatkan untuk memperluas adopsi teknologi pertanian, baik teknologi konvensional, maupun teknologi maju seperti pertanian presisi.
• Reformasi hukum dan peraturan harus dilakukan dengan seksama untuk mengurangi berbagai hambatan dalam adopsi teknologi baru, varietas unggul baru dan teknologi pertanian lainnya.
• Subsidi pupuk harus dikurangi secara bertahap dan dihapus, untuk dialokasikan pada perbaikan R&D pertanian dan bantuan langsung pada petani kecil untuk meningkatkan penghasilannya.

Penelitian tentang Peningkatan Investasi Pertanian untuk Ketahanan Pangan ini dilakukan oleh IFPRI bekerja sama dengan ADB, menggunakan Model yang dikembangkan IFPRI untuk Analisis Kebijakan Komoditas dan Perdagangan Pertanian (IMPACT), yang dikaitkan dengan model keseimbangan umum biasa untuk menghitung dampak perubahan iklim dan peningkatan investasi pada sektor pertanian dan sektor-sektor ekonomi lainnya secara luas. [cb]


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