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Anies Depak 2 Raksasa Air Sejak Orba karena tak Untung

- Kamis, Februari 14, 2019

Opini Bangsa - Pemprov DKI mengumumkan pengambilalihan pengelolaan air bersih di Ibu Kota dari dua perusahaan swasta yang menjadi mitra Badan Usaha Milik Daerah (BUMD) PD PAM Jaya, yakni PT Aetra Air Jakarta dan PT PAM Lyonnaise Jaya (Palyja). Pengambilalihan itu dilakukan karena kerja sama yang sudah terjalin selama 20 tahun lebih atau sejak 1997 itu, tidak memberikan keuntungan signifikan untuk Pemprov DKI dan warga Ibu Kota.

Pemprov DKI mengambil alih pengelolaan air melalui perdata. Pemprov DKI Jakarta mengambil salah satu opsi dalam pengambilalihan air yang dilakukan privatisasi oleh Aetra dan Palyja. Opsi yang ditawarkan oleh Tim Tata Kelola Air adalah pengambilalihan melalui tindakan perdata.

"Nah, opsi yang disarankan oleh Tim Tata Kelola adalah pengambilalihan pengelolaan melalui tindakan perdata. Dan, opsi itulah yang kami ikuti," kata Gubernur DKI Jakarta, Anies Rasyid Baswedan di Balai Kota DKI Jakarta, Senin (11/2) seperti dilansir Republika.

Anies menuturkan, rekomendasi itu merupakan hasil kajian yang telah dilakukan Tim Tata Kelola Air semenjak dibentuk pada 10 Agustus 2018 lalu dengan masa pengkajian selama enam bulan. Dengan adanya keputusan rekomendasi itu, Pemprov DKI meminta PD PAM Jaya menuntaskan pengambilalihan air dalam kurun waktu satu bulan.

Sehingga, ketika telah mencapai satu bulan, hal-hal pengambilalihan itu bisa dirangkum dalam sebuah perjanjian yang disebut head of agreement (HOA). HOA itu, kata dia, akan berisi kesepakatan awal sebelum ada MoU atau Perjanjian Kerja Sama.

"Jadi, itu nanti mengatur agendanya apa saja, yang diatur apa saja, yang akan dibicarakan apa saja. Sehingga, ada kesepakatan atau roadmap. Kesepakatan atau roadmap ini bisa kita pegang sama-sama sebagai komitmen bersama bahwa di sini kita akan membahas A, B, C, D, E, F, G. G itu kira-kira. Jadi, kesepakatan agenda utama," kata Anies.

Anies menjelaskan, pengambilalihan itu ditekankan kepada komponen kepemilikan. Sehingga, perihal pelayanan dan lain-lain adalah kewajiban korporasi yang harus tetap ditunaikan. Artinya, siapa pun pemegang saham maka dia harus tetap menjalankan pelayanan sesuai dengan Surat Perintah Membayar (SPM) yang sudah disepakati.

Mantan menteri pendidikan dan kebudayaan itu tak memungkiri, pengambilalihan dengan opsi tersebut nantinya akan memberikan dampak biaya yang akan ditanggung oleh Pemprov DKI. Namun, dia masih belum bisa memastikan adanya besaran biaya yang harus dikeluarkan.

"Nanti akan ada proses yang dilihat valuasinya, dan lain-lain. Baru kemudian kita sampai angka. Dan, itu bisa dikerjakan bukan saja pemerintah melalui alokasi anggaran, tapi juga bisa B to B, dan swasta. Artinya PDAM mencarikan sumber pendanaan dari banyak tempat," kata dia.

Keputusan pengambilalihan melalui tindakan perdata itu membuat pemprov menjalankan keinginan mengambil alih seluruh air di DKI Jakarta, sesuai dengan putusan Makhamah Agung sebelum dilakukan Peninjauan Kembali (PK) oleh Kementerian Keuangan dan dikabulkan.

"Dan, kemauan kita sebetulnya sejalan dengan Keputusan MA yang belum di-PK. Dan, ini lebih benar lagi. Begini. Ini perintah konstitusi," kata Anies.

Sebenarnya, kata dia, konstitusi mengatakan ini dipakai sebesar-besarnya untuk rakyat. Tahun 1997, pemerintah mendelegasikan itu kepada swasta. "Setelah 20 tahun, ternyata tidak mencapai target. Karena itu, sekarang kita akan ambil kembali," kata Anies.

Karena itu, dia mengambil kembali terlebih dahulu, terutama pendelegasian yang diberikan kepada Aetra dan Palyja. Namun, kata dia, bila saja swasta berhasil dalam menjalankan tugas pelayan an air yang optimal kepada masyarakat, maka pemprov tak akan memutuskan hal ini.

Direktur Amrta Institute yang juga anggota Tim Evaluasi Tata Kelola Air Jakarta Nila Ardanie menuturkan, setelah dilakukan kajian komprehensif yang meliputi aspek hukum, ekonomi, juga aspek keberlanjutan layanan, pihaknya mengidentifikasi terdapat tiga pilihan kebijakan rekomendasi. "Yang pertama, kita biarkan saja. Tapi, itu tadi konsekuensinya, layanan tidak akan meningkat banyak. Seperti ini saja. Karena waktunya sudah tinggal empat tahun," kata Nila di Balai Kota DKI Jakarta, Senin (11/2).

Karena masa kontrak hanya tinggal empat tahun, dia berpendapat, kecil kemungkinan kedua perusahaan swasta mau berinvestasi dalam jumlah besar. Kemudian, prosedur yang akan dilalui oleh pemprov sendiri dan PAM Jaya kalau mau ikut masuk untuk membantu peningkatan layanan, juga tidak mudah.

Artinya, kata dia, Penyertaan Modal Daerah (PMD) tak bisa dioptimalkan mengingat adanya kerja sama dengan swasta. Pihaknya mengkaji, bila pemprov mengambil opsi ini, kemungkinan pemprov akan mengalami kerugian sebanyak Rp 6,7 triliun pada Palyja, dan tambahan Rp 1,8 triliun pada Aetra.

Opsi kedua, yaitu pemutusan kontrak saat ini juga, dan sesegera mungkin, serta secara sepihak. Nila mengatakan, opsi itu adalah bukan pilihan yang cukup baik. Sebab, pemprov juga harus memperhatikan iklim bisnis di Jakarta dan juga di Indonesia.

Lalu, opsi ketiga itu adalah opsi pengambilalihan melalui tindakan perdata. Ada beberapa hal yang bisa dilakukan, yaitu dengan membeli saham Palyja ataupun Aetra.

"Meski perlu proses pembicaraan yang juga tidak mudah," ujar dia.

Masih ada dua opsi lainnya yang direkomendasi oleh Tim Tata Kelola Air yaitu, menggunakan perjanjian kerja sama yang mengatur mengenai penghentian kontrak. Opsi terakhir, kata dia, adalah pengambilalihan sebagian layanan. Artinya, pemprov bisa mengambil alih sebagian layanan seperti instalasi pengolahan dan distribusi sebelum masa kontrak berakhir pada 2023 mendatang.

Anies menyatakan Pemprov DKI telah mengikuti rekomendasi yang diberikan Tim Evaluasi Tata Kelola Air perihal pengambil alihan air dari pihak swasta. Rekomendasi itu diberikan atas kajian banyak aspek.

"Kita mengikuti rekomendasi yang disusun oleh tim tata kelola air. Jadi, tim tata kelola air menyusun studi, mengkaji banyak aspek," kata Anies di Balai Kota DKI Jakarta, Selasa (12/2).

Dalam proses pengkajian semasa enam bulan penugasan, pihaknya direkomendasikan untuk mengambil opsi-opsi yang ditawarkan. Anies memilih opsi penghentian melalui mekanisme perdata yang direkomendasikan oleh tim.

Anies menegaskan, langkah pengambilalihan air sangat penting. Tujuan langkah itu, kata dia, adalah mengoreksi kebijakan perjanjian yang dibuat pada masa Orde Baru, tepatnya pada 1997.

Anies berkata, selama 20 tahun perjalanan perjanjian ini, pelayanan air bersih di Ibu Kota tidak berkembang sesuai harapan. Pengelolaan air di Jakarta dengan pihak swasta menurut Anies bermasalah.

Ia menjelaskan, setidaknya ada tiga hal penyebab permasalahan tersebut. Pertama adalah perjanjian ini bermasalah. Hak eksklusivitas. "Jadi, kita tahu investasi terkait dengan pengelolaan air ini di dalam perjanjian kerja sama harus seizin pihak swasta," ujar Anies.

Anies mengakui Pemprov DKI kesulitan ketika ingin menambah jaringan air. Sebab, menurut peraturan, Pemprov DKI harus meminta izin kepada pihak swasta.

Alasan kedua, kata Anies, pengelolaan seluruh aspek seluruhnya ada pada pihak swasta. Aspek itu dimulai dari produksi air baku, pengelolaan dan pengolahannya, distribusi, dan pelayanannya.

Kemudian, alasan yang menjadi masalah adalah di mana negara di dalam perjanjian itu harus memberikan jaminan keuntungan 22 persen. Artinya, bila target tidak tercapai, negara masih harus membayar keuntungan kepada swasta.

"Kalau hari ini angkanya tercapai, mungkin lain cerita. Tapi, hari ini angka itu tidak tercapai, target jangkauannya. Tapi, negara berkewajiban (membayar)," ujar Anies.

Pengacara publik mewakili Koalisi Masyarakat Menolak Swastanisasi Air Jakarta (KMSSAJ) Tommy Albert menekankan kepada Pemprov DKI untuk tetap berkomitmen dalam sikap pengambilalihan air dari swasta. Dia meminta pengambilalihan air harus dilakukan secara keseluruhan, bukan hanya sebagian saja.

Dia menyetujui adanya rencana pembuatan HOA. Namun, HOA harus mencapai tujuannya, yaitu pengambilalihan tata kelola air sepenuhnya.

"Setuju dengan rencana HOA jika pengambilalihannya sebagaimana yang Gubernur katakan sebelumnya, yakni pengambilalihan sepenuhnya, bukan pengambilalihan sebagian," kata Tommy.

Pengambilalihan air dari Aetra dan Palyja sepenuhnya yang dia maksud adalah pengambilalihan dari segala aspek. Aspek-aspek itu adalah dari persiapan produksi air baku, pengelolaan dan pengolahan, distribusi, dan juga pelayanannya.

Dia menyayangkan keinginan Anies tak selaras dengan dengan Tim Evaluasi Tata Kelola Air maupun PD PAM Jaya sendiri. Karena itu, dia pun akan tetap melanjutkan pengawalan terhadap kinerja pemprov dalam pembuatan HOA yang akan dibuat dalam kurun waktu satu bulan ini.

Dalam pengawalannya itu, dia akan memastikan air akan dikembalikan ke negara seluruhnya. Di samping itu, dia menilai adanya keuntungan atau potensi pendapatan yang besar dalam pengelolaan air di DKI Jakarta.

"Saya heran kenapa ada potensi pendapatan yang besar tapi ada pihak negara yang masih justru berkeras itu dikelola oleh swasta," kata dia.

Direktur Utama PD PAM Jaya Priyatno Bambang Hernowo mengaku diminta Anies untuk membuat HOA dengan pihak swasta. HOA itu, kata dia, akan diisi terkait dengan pengambilalihan pengelolaan air bersih. HOA juga akan memberikan penjelasan lebih lanjut mengenai pengambilalihan tata kelola air, termasuk langkah-langkah dan juga jadwalnya.

"Kalau menurut kami, itu perjanjian definitif. Jadi, nanti setelah HOA itu maka step selanjutnya akan bicara detailnya, termasuk pembuatan perjanjian definitifnya," ujar Bambang.


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